Soyuz TM-12 was the 12th mission and the ninth long-duration expedition to Mir space station. The mission began on May 18, 1991, 12:50:28 UTC, launching Commander Anatoly Artsebarsky, Flight Engineer Sergei Krikalyov and Research Cosmonaut Helen Sharman, the first British cosmonaut, into orbit. They docked with Mir two days later. During their stay there, cosmonauts performed EVAs, various station repair and maintenance tasks, and carried out scientific experiments in biology, geophysics, space technology, astronomy etc. They were visited by several Progress resupply spacecrafts and welcomed aboard the Soyuz TM-13 crew.
Helen Sharman returned on May 26, 1991, in Soyuz TM-11 spacecraft. While Sergei Krikalyov stayed on the station as a part of the next long-duration expedition, Anatoly Artsebarsky landed safely back on Earth on October 10, 1991, 04:12:18 UTC.